Sunday, May 24, 2020

How Successful Are Descartes Arguments for the Real...

How successful are Descartes arguments for the real distinction of mind from body? Upon which problem would you put the most weight? Descartes says the mind is distinct from the body, or anything physical for that matter. He says, a thinking substance is nonphysical or spiritual in nature (mind), and an extended substance is physical, but not capable of consciousness or thought (body). However, this very claim is also his biggest problem as his mind Ââ€" body interaction has many critics and to some, can seem invalid. This is mainly due to the challenge by those who ask how mind and body can interact if they are two different substances altogether. Over Descartes period of teaching, he has conceived many arguments to support his view of†¦show more content†¦Descartes continues with his argument of simplicity. When I think about my mindÂâ€"or, in other words, about myself insofar as I am just a thinking thingÂâ€"I cant distinguish any parts; I understand myself to be a single, unified thing. Although my whole mind seems united to my whole body, I know that cutting off a foot, arm, or other limb would not take anything away from my mind. Descartes argues that the mind is indivisible because it cannot be broken down and does not have extension. The body, as an object that can move and take up space can be divided in to many things whereas the mind is one complete substance that does not have extension and is non Ââ€"spatial. Since the mind and body are different substances with different properties, they must be able to exist independently as they must not be the same thing. Leibniz Law supports the argument and shows that the mind and body are not the same because they do not have all of the same properties. We cannot conceive of half a soul, as we can in the case of any body, however small. The mind has lots of feelings and idea, but they are all intertwined into one indivisible mind. However, if this is said, then cannot we say the same for the body, that the body and mind, different as they are, are also closely intertwined to one another? With Descartes saying that if his leg was to be cut off, nothing wouldShow MoreRelatedDescartes Arguments for Substance Dualism2259 Words   |  10 PagesDoes Descartes provide a convincing argument for the claim that mind and matter are distinct substances Descartes’ Argument For Dualism In his Meditations Rene Descartes aimed to reconstruct the whole of science by trying to prove the distinction between mind and matter. He gives an argument from doubt, and another from conceivability. I will give a brief summary of the foundations Descartes builds his thesis on, and then looking at his arguments and whether they are capable of persuading usRead MorePersonal Identity - Memory Theory vs Body Theory vs Soul Theory1634 Words   |  7 PagesPersonal Identity is the closest to the truth. I will do so by showing that the opposing theories – Body and Soul Theories – have evident flaws and that the arguments against the Memory Theory can be responded to adequately. In order to succeed in this task, I will explain the basis of the three aforementioned theories are, examine the Memory Theory’s main arguments, acknowledge and respond to the arguments against it and demonstrate that the Memory Theory is the theory closest to the truth. I have includedRead M ore The Free Will in Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes3767 Words   |  16 PagesFree Will in Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes I In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes takes the reader through a methodological exercise in philosophical enquiry. After stripping the intellect of all doubtful and false beliefs, he re-examines the nature and structure of being in an attempt to secure a universally valid epistemology free from skepticism. Hoping for the successful reconciliation of science and theology, Descartes works to reconstruct a new foundation of absoluteRead MoreBranches of Philosophy8343 Words   |  34 Pagesbetween truth, belief, and justification. †¢ Ethics, or moral philosophy, is concerned with questions of how persons ought to act or if such questions are answerable. The main branches of ethics are meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Meta-ethics concerns the nature of ethical thought, comparison of various ethical systems, whether there are absolute ethical truths, and how such truths could be known. Ethics is also associated with the idea of morality. Platos early dialogues includeRead MoreExistentialism vs Essentialism23287 Words   |  94 Pagesprecedes existence.† The claim â€Å"existence precedes essence† is a rejection of the idea that human nature has an end or goal. In this sense, humans are free to choose their own destiny.   * is a philosophical term which asserts that there is a distinction between essential and non-essential (contingent or accidental) characteristics of an object. Essentialism assumes that objects have essences and that an object’s identity is its essence. Aristotle distinguished between an object’s essence and itsRead MoreThe Importance of Philosophy to Engineering8110 Words   |  33 PagesAbstract Philosophy has not paid sufficient attention to engineering. Nevertheless, engineering should not use this as an excuse to ignore philosophy. The argument here is that philosophy is important to engineering for at least three reasons. First, philosophy is necessary so that engineers may understand and defend themselves against philosophical criticisms. In fact, there is a tradition of engineering philosophy that is largely overlooked, even by engineers. Second, philosophy, especially ethicsRead MoreMetz Film Language a Semiotics of the Cinema PDF100902 Words   |  316 PagesNOTE ON THE TRANSLATION larly dolly in and dolly out are used rather than forward and rear. Mise en scà ¨ne is also retained in its filmic use, while staging is used to describe a stage production. The term constantif, which Metz borrowed from Austin, should be rendered by constantive and not by ascertaining (p. 25). Finally, actor to translate Greimas s concept of actant is misleading and actant is usually kept (see Ducrà ´t and Todorov, Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Sciences of LanguageRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesstructure of arguments. David M. Adams, California State Polytechnic University These examples work quite well. Their diversity, literacy, ethnic sensitivity, and relevancy should attract readers. Stanley Baronett. Jr., University of Nevada Las Vegas Far too many authors of contemporary texts in informal logic – keeping an eye on the sorts of arguments found in books on formal logic – forget, or underplay, how much of our daily reasoning is concerned not with arguments leading to truth-valued Read MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words   |  115 PagesPrediction Control, and the SOGI Model Making Sense of Organisations: Metaphorical knowledge. Traditional Management: Mechanism, Rationality and Bureaucracy. Modified Bureaucracy: The Human Relations Movement and Job Design. Organisational Culture: Real and imagined. Why Work?: The motivation to get out of bed in the morning. The Politics of Organising: Goals? Whose Goals? Power and Conflict in Organisations: Pathology or Normality? Leadership and Management: The gentle art of being in charge? NegotiationRead MoreA Critical Review of â€Å"the Ambiguities of Football, Politics, Culture, and Social Transformation in Latin America† by Tamir Bar-on.14147 Words   |  57 PagesAmbiguities of Football, Politics, Culture, and Social Transformation in Latin America† by Tamir Bar-On. Introduction: In Latin America, soccer is not a game; it is a way of life. It is mixed in with politics and nationalism. It defines social classes. How politically influential is soccer in Latin America? It is used by â€Å"various Latin American socio-economic elites in order to retard the acceleration of working class and popular discontent† (Bar-On 1997:1.8). Is it then not intriguing that women play

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay on The Perils of Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy

The Perils of Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy When we contemplate manipulation of the human genome, we tend to frame the debate in terms of the potential consequences for our children, or our childrens children. These are the individuals whose lives, and whose genes, are most likely to be effected by the rapidly advancing field of human genetics. Thus, while generations have always been conscious about the external environment bequeathed to their children, we of this generation may have to consider the additional question of what will we leave inside our children. As parents, do we have the responsibility or the right to screen against or select for certain genetically determined traits in our children? Here, I argue that†¦show more content†¦Indeed, Martin Pernick suggests that our constructions of disability and disease have historically been shaped by our aesthetic standards of beauty and ugliness[1]. Popularizers associated with the American eugenics movement of the early twentieth century saw an attractive appearan ce as the best external indicator of health, intellect, and morality1. Such propaganda encouraged men and women to select soul mates (and breeding partners) solely on the basis of beauty, in order to improve the quality of societys genetic stock[1]. The American eugenics movement is a relatively extreme case in which subjective values dictated the popular understanding of health and healthy living. That the claims of this particular movement were irrational and unfounded does not necessarily condemn the more general desire of parents to influence their children based on the subjective value they ascribe to beauty, ability and intelligence. We generally do not criticize parents for making many decisions that shape the lives of their children-the type of education children receive, for example-so why shouldnt parents be empowered to make decisions about the best genes for their children as well? Matt Ridley sees nothing inherently wrong with giving parents the opportunity toShow MoreRelated Genetic Testing: Benefits and Burdens Essay5009 Words   |  21 PagesGenetic Testing: Benefits and Burdens Thesis: The field of genetic testing is rapidly expanding. Numerous ethical issues are arising, within genetic testing, such as privacy issues, the potential of discrimination or eugenics, and how to convey the information properly. Background: Today we live in a very technologically advanced society. Scientists are continually discovering new things about the world and the way things work. In the 1980à ­s, it was becoming increasingly apparent to manyRead MoreDesigner Babies Essay2356 Words   |  10 Pages The horizon of gene technology broadens everyday along with the imagination of every human being. Designer babies, a rather amusing as well as a controversial field in science, could one day change the living world. The term ‘designer babies’ is used by people like journalists. A more scientific term would be ‘genetically modified babies’. Designing babies is actually more of a general term as this covers lots of different areas within. There are a number of methodsRead MoreSources of Ethics20199 Words   |  81 PagesTABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0- JOHN STEINER AND GEORGE STEINER SIX PRIMARY SOURCES OF ETHICS: 6 1- Religion: 6 2- Genetic Inheritance: 8 3- Philosophical Systems: 8 4- Cultural Experience: 8 5- The Legal System: 9 6- Codes of Conduct: 9 2.0- EXPLANATION OF THE SOURCES OF ETHICS: 10 2.1- RELIGION: 10 Teaching business ethics 12 2.11- Impact Of Religiosity: 13 2.12- Ethics Of Islam: 14 Nature of Islamic Ethics 17 The Human-Environment Relationship: 20 The SustainableRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesvariables set the stage for what will occur in an organization later. Many are determined in advance of the employment relationship. For example, individual diversity characteristics, personality, and values are shaped by a combination of an individual’s genetic inheritance and childhood environment. Group structure, roles, and team responsibilities are Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 25 Exhibit 1-4 Inputs Individual Level †¢ Diversity †¢ Personality †¢ Values A Basic OB Model Processes Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesincluding group methods, meditation techniques, altered consciousness procedures, aromatherapy, assorted massages, physical exercise regimens, and biofeedback. It is estimated that Americans alone spend between $30 billion and $50 billion on such therapies. In this chapter we do not summarize those various approaches to enhanced self-awareness, nor do we espouse any one procedure in par-ticular. Instead, our objective is to help you understand the importance of self-awareness if you are to be a suc-cessful

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Read What Gurus are Saying About Essay Writing Topics for Interviews

Read What Gurus are Saying About Essay Writing Topics for Interviews Something funny is an excellent method to begin the essay. Picking the incorrect day to publish can be harmful to total recommends. Naturally, with the sum of work that you could be doing, you might be on the lookout for essay writing help but not quite certain where to turn. Checking in for your interview approximately ten minutes early is excellent form. Naturally, you wish to make sure we're you do go for help is truly likely to help your essay and writing generally speaking. Just know that should you find the writing style that's crystal clear and engaging, you're at the appropriate spot. Writing a synthesis paper is much more challenging than you believe! The essay will fit in the right sum of Letter sized paper. An essay, or a paper, has a huge set of rules that you have to follow if they'd love to have a very good grade. Essay writing examples in doc format like the ones given may help direct you in writing an excellent composition. A personal narrative essay must be engaging, meaning that you must include superior ideas with the critical points of information. Utilize your five-paragraph essay methods to craft business articles people wish to read. There are a number of writing resources online, but I found watching it happens is among the most efficient means of learning. Pick a compelling topic, although in some circumstances a topic could possibly be mandated by the teacher. Interview essay format another major info to discuss. Interview essays are written dependent on an interview, performed by the author. An interview essay ought to have a backbone so that it is going to be well written and the thoughts which are included within the writing organized. Now you are aware of how to compose an interview essay of many types. Essay Writing Topics for Interviews Creative essays should have a topic. Editing and Proofreading Editing and Proofreading is an important part of your essay. It's important to get a way of organizing your long essay. So, researching is a rather important part of essay writing. The maturation of the custom made essay writing organizations are justified as assignments has come to be the prominent element of the educational system. A few of the essays are dependent upon source info and others aren't. Make certain your essay will receive the interest of your readers by supplying the required information needed to be known. It's extremely important to read carefully essay services reviews, because you would like to steer clear of low high quality services. What to Expect From Essay Writing Topics for Interviews? The cornerstone of a thriving personal narrative essay is an excellent topic! At length, good attitudes are extremely important. With what has been gathered, someone may then compose a comprehensive essay about the exchange. You don't need to find super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be certain to do your ho mework on what the present laws about your favorite topic actually say. Interview essay intends to provide a particular view of an object, event or phenomenon, dependent on the answers of unique folks. After you have gathered ideas on the subject, you have to properly set your thoughts into words. The thesis statement indicates to the reader what argument you're making and what they are able to expect throughout the whole period of your paper. The previous sentence ought to be persuasive to the principal point and ought to show that the essay is coming to a conclusion. Essay Writing Topics for Interviews - Overview Fill in the purchase form and you'll get your distinctive interview essay in no moment! To conclude, you might have an excellent job interview when you get enough info, fantastic preparation and excellent action. If you're recording an interview, be sure you use all the answers since they are, with no changes. The interview is done as a way to learn an individual' s opinion about a specific issue, event, etc.. How to succeed on a work interview Some people today believe that interviewing is easy since they fit the employer's job description. Whatever topic you've chosen and whoever you have selected to interview, being in a position to properly relay the message that you wished to share is something which is required to be considered. It is impossible for those and students to acquire writing skills and knowledge daily. Another option when seeking essay writing help is to let a person who isn't even in your course like a friend or relative, read it in numerous phases of completion. Want to Know More About Essay Writing Topics for Interviews? Writing a literary essay in the sixth grade is a relatively straightforward process which should take just a few hours to finish. It is a craft that requires consistent effort and dedication. Writing for a 6th-grade level was discovered to be the best by far. Writing about nuclear weapons is alw ays a superb idea. Get the Scoop on Essay Writing Topics for Interviews Before You're Too Late The conclusion paragraph of your essay should not be exceedingly long. It's possible to scan through your essay and decrease wordy' sentences. An essay has to be composed of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Every essay has to have a typical structure if there are not any other instructions.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

In The Great Gatsby, By F. Scott Fitzgerald, Many Themes Essay Example For Students

In The Great Gatsby, By F. Scott Fitzgerald, Many Themes Essay are enclosed; the most salient of these themes is relatedto the American Dream. The American Dream is based on theidea that any person, no matter what they are, can becomesuccessful in life by his or her hard work. The dream alsoembodies the idea of a self-sufficient person, anentrepreneur making it successful for themselves. The GreatGatsby is about what happened to the American Dream duringthe 1920s, an era when the dream had been corrupted by therelentless pursuit of wealth. In this novel, the pursuit ofthe American Dream and the pursuit of a romantic dream arethe ultimate causes of the downfall of the books titlecharacter, Jay Gatsby. Throughout the story, Jay Gatsby avoids telling thetruth of his hard, unglamorous childhood. He does this tokeep his superficial image of himself and to save himselffrom the embarrassment of being in a state of poverty duringhis youth. His parents were lazy and unsuccessful peoplewho worked on the farm, and because of this Gatsby neverreally accepted them as his parents. Jay Gatsbys real nameis James Gatz and he is from the very unexciting NorthDakota. He changed his name to Jay Gatsby when he wasseventeen years old, which was the beginning of his versionof the American Dream. In all realities Gatsby arose fromhis Platonic view of himself, the idealistic self-view thata seventeen year old boy has of himself (Fitzgerald 104). Though concealed for most of the story, Gatsbysembarrassing childhood is a major source of determination inhis attempt to achieve the American Dream. During Gatsbys early adulthood, he joined the army. Hefirst met Daisy when he was at Camp Taylor and he and someother officers stopped by her house. He initially lovedDaisy because of her extraordinary house and because manyother men had been with her already. One evening inOctober, during 1917, Gatsby fell in love with Daisy Fay,and in turn she fell in love with Gatsby. Daisy was thefirst ?nice girl that he had ever known (Fitzgerald 155). Their love was an uneasy one at first for Gatsby tocomprehend because he wasnt rich by any standards and hefelt that he wasnt worthy of Daisys affection, but hisuneasiness was uplifted when he and Daisy fell in love andwhen he found out that Daisy knew a lot because he knew avariety of things that she didnt. Their month of love wasphysically ended when Gatsby had to go to war, but theiremotional love never ended. As Gatsby performed brilliantlythroughout the war, they wrote each other frequently. Daisycouldnt understand why Gatsby couldnt come home. Shewanted her love to be their with her, she needed someassurance that she was doing the right thing. It didnttake long for Daisy to get over Jay because in the Spring of1918 she fell in love with a rich, former All-Americancollege football player named Tom Buchanon. This broke JayGatsbys heart. His love for Daisy was a strong one and hewas determined to get her back. This first love with Daisyhad a great impact on his idea of one of the aspects ofachieving the American Dream. Throughout the novel, the reader is mislead about howGatsby became wealthy. Gatsby claims on several differentoccasions that he inherited his parents immense fortune. This is a story that Gatsby made up in order to keep hisself-image up by not letting people know about hischildhood. The truth is that Gatsby got rich by illegalmeasures. He was friends with the notorious MeyerWolfsheim. Meyer Wolfsheim was the racketeer who supposedlyfixed the World Series of 1919. He was Gatsbys connectionto organized crime, in which Gatsby became rich. Gatsbystrue sources to richness were selling bootleg liquor in hischain of drug stores and creating a giant business to getrid of and sell stolen Liberty bonds (Mizener 188). Gatsbys methods of gaining wealth corrupt the morality ofthe American Dream although they help him to achieve it. It did not take long for Gatsby to attempt to win Daisyback after he returned from the army. Jay Gatsby had thisromantic view of Daisy and himself together and happyforever. He felt the best way to achieve this idea would befor him to become at least as rich as Daisys husband TomBuchanon. He knows that the best ways for him to pryDaisys affection away from Tom are gaining wealth andgaining material possessions. Daisy is a shallow woman whois easily overwhelmed by material items. Gatsbys main wayto show off his wealth and material possessions were tothrow lavish parties. His parties featured the finestdrinks and live jazz bands. The parties were so huge thatNick Carraway, Gatsbys best friend and the narrator of thebook, alluded to them as the Worlds Fair. Not only did theparties fulfill Gatsbys reasons for having them, but theyalso showed his grand sense of pride that stemmed from hisrichness. Is it Glorious to Die for your Country? EssayThese things never happen but it is the fact that Gatsby wasconcerned about her well- being and Daisy was not concernedwith Gatsbys well- being that is important. She is just ashallow person who does not know the meaning of the wordlove. She is caught up in the times and in living themoraless and careless lifestyle that she leads. She couldcare less about what happens to anyone except for herself. This whole situation proves that she is definitely notdeserving of the high pedestal that Gatsby has placed her on(Internet 1). This is the greatest blow to his romanticdream of him and Daisy being together forever because shechooses Tom over Gatsby in a time of crisis. It shows thatthe man that she truly wants to be with the most is the manshe is living with now. Gatsby realizes this and his lifebegins to be pointless. This is his dream brought toreality. The dream is completely dissipated and will knowsit will never be achieved. It did not take long for George Wilson, Myrtleshusband, to trace the yellow car which killed his wife backto Jay Gatsby. Because George Wilson wants revenge for hiswifes death, and he believes it is Gatsby who killed hiswife, he goes to Gatsbys estate and kills Gatsby and thenhimself. This is the tragic end of Gatsbys life. All ofhis heroism, his rapid rise to the top, all brought to acalamitous end because Daisy did not love him as much as heloved her. Although Gatsbys romantic dream was alreadydead, his version of the American Dream was still alive andbeaming. He still had everything going for him; his youth,money, and personality. Gatsby is morally superior to hisfellow East Eggers and Nick acknowledges this when he tellsGatsby, Youre worth the whole damn bunch put together. (Fitzgerald 162). To have it all taken away for somethinghe had not even done was the greatest misfortune of theentire novel. Gatsbys death is made even more saddening at hisfuneral. Nick tried to make Gatsbys funeral respectablebut only he, Gatsbys father, and one of Gatsbysacquaintances attended the funeral. None of Gatsbysracketeering friends came, nor did the love of his life,Daisy. Nick truly cared about Jay Gatsby although nobodyelse did. He exemplified what a true friend is and did whatonly a friend would do for another friend. Daisy did notseem to feel a tiny bit of sadness over Gatsbys death. This is shown in her not attending his funeral and insteadgoing away with Tom on a vacation. In the end, the most that can be said is that The GreatGatsby is a dramatic affirmation in fictional terms of theAmerican spirit in the midst of an American world thatdenies the soul (Bewley 46). Gatsbys strong desire forwealth and Daisy, the American and romantic dreamrespectively, prove to be the greatest reasons for his gravedownfall at the hands of a ruthless society. Works CitedBewley, Marius. Scott Fitzgerald and the Collapse of theAmerican Dream. Modern Critical Views: F. ScottFitzgerald. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea HousePublishers, 1985: 32-45. Mizener, Arthur. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby.The American Novel: From James Fenimore Cooper toWilliam Faulkner. Ed. Wallace Stegner. New York:Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1965: 180-191. Scott Fitzgerald, Frances. The Great Gatsby. New York:Macmillan Publishing Company, 1925. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Online: SchoolPapers, Microsoft Network, November 19,1997. Way, Brian. The Great Gatsby. Modern CriticalInterpretations. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: ChelseaHouse Publishers, 1986: 87-105.

Friday, April 3, 2020

7 Warning Signs Your Talent Is Being Wasted at Work

7 Warning Signs Your Talent Is Being Wasted at Work So you sought out a job, went through the interview process, and got hired. Whoo hoo, so exciting! What’s more, you even feel confident that you were the best out of the bunch of candidates. But all the same, maybe since you started you haven’t been quite sure that your talents and particular skills are being used to their full effect. Take a look at the following warning signs that you are not reaching your full potential. If a few of these signs apply to you, you might want to consider seeking out a bigger pond, one where you can stretch your wings, challenge yourself, and reach the career goals you know you’re capable of reaching.1. Your boss is threatened by your best ideas.If all your ideas end up in the â€Å"Maybe Someday† file, and your manager seems to prefer bumping along with the status quo rather than pushing the envelope, you’re not going to get much traction. Maybe you’re hearing a lot of â€Å"but this is how it’s alway s been done† and not enough â€Å"that’s a great idea; we should try it,† or getting shut down (or outright ignored) by your boss for ideas you know to be good. If any of this is the case, then maybe it’s time to start to worry.2. You work with automatons.Instead of everyone pitching in to realize some long-term goal or vision, you find that all of your coworkers are merely on autopilot, doing task after task that doesn’t seem to generate any new sparks or momentum.3. You never receive any sort of appreciation.If you’re working hard and no one at work sees you for the superstar you are, then you A) haven’t shown them, or B) they’ve seen your talents and are choosing to ignore them. Your once bright future starts to grey.4. You’re trapped.Are you confined by your title? This could be your own fault or the fault of your workplace: you’re so hemmed in by your specific role and tasks that you don’t feel the free dom to be able to fluidly reach out to your team members and help with other projects and initiatives when necessary. Even if this kind of effort might require you to push yourself outside of your comfort zone, it can be good for your growth.5. Your boss is putting your light under a bushel.Whether your boss is afraid of change or threatened by your rising star, perhaps he or she isn’t being the kind of mentor that lets you shine. Maybe they even call you in and tell you to hold back a little, or pipe down in meetings, instead of batting around your best ideas.6. Your company values policy over passion.You’re a rule-follower, and you’re feeling stifled. It’s possible that you’re very comfortable where you are, but still- biding your time and knowing real change and real challenge are too far around the corner to be feasible it a recipe for nothingness. Meanwhile, you keep on toeing the company line and following policies you don’t think are best practice. You’re going nowhere, and slowly.7. You’re burnt out and bored.After your first entry-level gigs, you should probably never be bored at work. If your job is boring you, it’s time to move on for sure. Watch for burn-out also; it’s not just for people in high powered careers that work too fast and too hard. It can strike anyone who’s been grappling with long-term demoralization and lack of inspiration. Remember, you’re a person, not a robot just completing tasks.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

SAT Curve Is It Real

SAT Curve Is It Real SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Many high school tests are curved, but what about the SAT? Is the SAT curved? Canwhen or whom you take the exam with affect your final SAT score? In this article, we'll answer all ofyour questions about the SAT curve. First, we'llclosely examine whether there actually is an SAT curve and discusshow the SAT is scored. We'll then look at SAT curve trendsand give you tips on how you canuse SAT curves to your advantage. Is the SAT Curved? Contrary to what you may believe, there is no SAT curve. This means your SAT score willnever be affected by how other test takers perform on thetest. So even if everyone you took the SAT with were to performpoorly on it, the College Board would not raise everyone's SAT scores to account forthe surplusof low test scores. In other words,you will never receive an SAT score higher than what you actually earned on the test, regardless of whom you took the test with. But if the SAT isn't curved relative to other test takers, how does its scoring system work? Is an 800 in Evidence-Based Reading and Writing (EBRW) on one SAT the same as a perfect EBRW score on another? Or is it more difficult to score highlyon certain test dates? To account for slight differences in difficulty among SATs, the College Board uses a system known asequating. This processensures that SAT scores areconsistent across tests and will always indicate the same level of ability no matter when youtake the SAT.Soa 650 Math score on one SAT will always correspondto a 650 Math score on another SAT- even if one test contains easier Math questions. Inthe College Board's words: â€Å"This [equating] process ensures that no student receives an advantage or disadvantage from taking a particular form of the test on a particular day;* a score of 400 on one test form is equivalent to a score of 400 on another test form.† *Emphasis mine. Through this equating process, or "SAT curves," the College Board can account for slight variations in difficulty among SATs to give test takers on different test datesthe same opportunityto achievetheir goal scores. As a result, there is no single besttime to take the SAT. Regardless of how easy or difficult a test may be,all SATs are equated so that getting a certainscaled score will always require the same amount of effort and level of ability. So how is the SAT scored? Andhow is it equated? Read on to find out. How Do SAT Curves Work? Before we get into the SAT equating process, let's do aquick recap of the scoring system. Both theEBRW and Math scores use scales of 200-800andcombine to give youa composite score range of 400-1600. But you likely know therearen't 1,600 total questions on the SAT. So then how are these scaled scores calculated? On the SAT (excluding the Essay), you earn one point for every question you answer correctly. (You do not lose any points for incorrect or blank answers.) All of your correct answers combine to give you araw score for each section. If you were to correctly answer 45 out of 58 Math questions, your raw Math score would equal 45. This raw score is subsequently converted into a Math section score (i.e., your final scaled score). But the process is a little more complicated for the Reading and Writing sections. Like the Math section, your Reading and Writing performancesare assigned raw scores based on the number of questions you answered correctly. Theseraw scores are then converted into test scoreson a scale of 10-40. Finally, the test scores are added together and multiplied by 10 to give you an EBRW score (on a scale of 200-800- the same as it is for Math). But here's the caveat: raw scores on one SAT willnotnecessarily convert into the same scaled scores on another. Why is there this discrepancy? Each SAT varies slightly in content and difficulty, and so to account for these variations, the College Board translates raw scores into scaled scoresusing individualequating formulas for each test. This essentially meansyou'll never be able to know before you take the SAT how a raw score will convert into a scaled score. That said,by looking at ascore conversion table from an official SAT practice test, we can get a rough idea as to how the equating process works for each SAT. These conversion tables- which differ slightly with each test due to differences in equating formulas- show us how raw scores convert into scaled scores for different sections of the test. The two tables below are based on the score conversion tables forPractice Test #6and Practice Test #7(both of which are copies ofreal SATs!). SAT Practice Test #6 Raw Score Conversion Chart Raw Score Math Section Score Reading Test Score Writing and Language Test Score 0 200 10 10 1 200 10 10 2 210 10 10 3 230 10 11 4 250 11 11 5 260 12 12 6 280 13 13 7 290 14 14 8 310 15 15 9 320 15 16 10 330 16 16 11 340 17 17 12 350 17 18 13 360 18 18 14 380 18 19 15 390 19 20 16 400 19 20 17 410 20 21 18 420 20 22 19 430 21 23 20 440 21 23 21 450 22 24 22 460 22 25 23 470 23 25 24 490 23 26 25 500 24 27 26 510 24 27 27 510 25 28 28 520 25 28 29 530 26 29 30 530 26 30 31 540 27 30 32 550 27 31 33 560 28 31 34 570 28 32 35 580 29 33 36 590 29 34 37 590 30 34 38 600 30 35 39 610 31 36 40 620 31 36 41 630 32 38 42 640 33 39 43 650 33 39 44 660 34 40 45 670 35 46 670 36 47 680 37 48 690 37 49 700 38 50 710 39 51 720 40 52 730 40 53 740 54 760 55 770 56 780 57 790 58 800 Source: Scoring Your SAT Practice Test #6 Overwhelmed by all of the numbers? Time for kitty therapy. SAT Practice Test #7 Raw Score Conversion Chart Raw Score Math Section Score Reading Test Score Writing and Language Test Score 0 200 10 10 1 200 10 10 2 210 10 10 3 230 10 10 4 250 11 11 5 260 12 12 6 280 13 12 7 290 14 13 8 310 15 14 9 320 15 15 10 330 16 15 11 350 17 16 12 360 17 17 13 370 18 18 14 380 18 18 15 390 19 19 16 400 20 19 17 420 20 20 18 430 21 21 19 430 21 22 20 440 22 22 21 450 22 23 22 460 23 24 23 470 23 25 24 480 24 25 25 490 24 26 26 500 25 26 27 510 25 27 28 510 26 28 29 520 26 29 30 530 27 29 31 530 27 30 32 540 28 31 33 550 28 31 34 550 29 32 35 560 29 32 36 570 30 33 37 580 30 34 38 590 31 34 39 590 31 35 40 600 32 36 41 610 32 36 42 620 33 37 43 630 34 39 44 640 35 40 45 650 35 46 660 36 47 670 37 48 680 37 49 680 38 50 690 39 51 700 39 52 720 40 53 730 54 740 55 760 56 770 57 790 58 800 Source: Scoring Your SAT Practice Test #7 Just byglancing at these charts, you can probablytell there are several minor differences in how the raw scores for Math, Reading, and Writing convert into scaled or test scores. For Math, a raw score of 40 would net you 620 on Test #6 but only 600 on Test #7! This hints thatthe Math section on Test #7 is a little easier than thaton Test #6. How can we tell? OnTest #7, you must answer more questions correctly (and obtain a higher raw score of 42) to get a scaled score of 620. The trends are similar for Reading.You could get a perfect 40 on Reading on Test #6, even if you were to miss a question (and earna raw score of 51). On Test #7, however, missing just one question reduces your Reading test score to 39. Once again, we can see a minute difference in difficulty: the Reading section on Test #6 is slightly more difficult than that on Test #7, and has thus been equated so that even if you were to miss aquestion you willstill get a perfect score. You'll find similar differences among the Writing scores, too.A raw score of 42 will nab you a near-perfect test score of 39 on Test #6 but a noticeably lower 37 on Test #7. Ultimately, through these tables, we can confirm thatraw SAT scoresdo not consistently convert into the same scaled scores for each test. So while you can't know for sure how many questions you'll need to answer correctly on the SAT in order to get the scaled scores you want, you can use the tables above to give yourself an ideaas to how your raw scores may translate into scaled scores on test day. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today! How Has the SAT Curve Changed Over Time? Because the new SAThasn’t been around that long,we can't determine yet how much the SAT curves have changed with each testing year. That being said, we can look at some of the officialscore range tables for previous testing years (for the old, pre-2016 SAT) to get a feel for how the new SAT might experience similar trends. Score range tables show us how raw scores convert into scaled scores for entiretesting years. For this analysis, we'll be looking at a10-year difference using the 2005-06and 2015-16raw score to scaled score range tables. 2005-06 SAT Score Range Table Raw Score Critical Reading Raw Score Mathematics Raw Score Writing (Multiple Choice) 67 800 65 790-800 60 710-740 55 660-680 54 800 50 620-640 50 710-750 49 800 45 580-600 45 650-690 45 700-770 40 550-570 40 610-640 40 630-670 35 520-530 35 570-600 35 570-610 30 490-500 30 530-550 30 520-560 25 460-470 25 490-510 25 480-510 20 420-440 20 450-470 20 440-470 15 390-410 15 410-430 15 400-430 10 350-380 10 370-390 10 350-380 5 290-330 5 310-340 5 300-330 0 200-270 0 210-260 0 210-260 -5 200 -5 200 -5 200 Source: SAT Raw Score to Scaled Score Ranges 2005-06 2015-16 SAT Score Range Table Raw Score Critical Reading Raw Score Mathematics Raw Score Writing (Multiple Choice) 67 800 65 790-800 60 710-740 55 650-680 54 800 50 610-630 50 700-730 49 800 45 570-590 45 650-670 45 690-720 40 540-560 40 600-620 40 620-650 35 510-520 35 560-570 35 560-600 30 480-490 30 520-530 30 510-550 25 450-460 25 480-490 25 470-500 20 420-430 20 440-460 20 420-460 15 380-400 15 400-420 15 380-410 10 340-360 10 350-380 10 340-370 5 290-320 5 300-330 5 280-320 0 200-240 0 220-260 0 200-240 -5 200 -5 200 -5 200 Source: SAT Raw Score to Scaled Score Range 2015-16 Before we analyzeeach SAT curve chart, keep in mind that these tables are for the old SAT; therefore,the Reading and Writing scores are not combined for an overallEBRW score asthey are currently. In addition, unlike the new SAT, on the old SAT you could score lower than a 0 due to penalties for incorrect answers. Let's start with the SAT Math curve. According to the data above, araw Math score of 50gave test takersas high as 750 in the 2005-06 testing year but onlyas high as 730 in the 2015-16 testing year. Similarly, if you look at the highest possible scaled score for each Math range, you'll findthat the 2005-06 maximums are consistently (albeit only marginally) higher than those on the 2015-16 table. What thispattern tells us is that, on average, the Math sections on the 2005-06 SATs were slightly harderthan those on the 2015-16 SATs. This is evidenced by the fact youtypically needed to score more raw points in 2015-16 to get the same scaled Math scores in 2005-06. But what about the other sections? On Writing,you used to be able to earn up to 49 raw points. In 2005-06, you could score as high as 770 with a raw score of 45 but only as high as 720 with the same raw score in 2015-16. And with theSAT Critical Reading curve, the 2005-06 and 2015-16 ranges are mostly the same, give or take10 points. Based on all of this information, then, what can we conclude about the SAT curve? The tables indicate that the number of questions you must answer correctly to get certain scaled scores has stayed roughly the same over the years. Generally speaking, the variations among scaled scores on each section are minimal- usually only 10- or 20-point differences at most. Therefore, these patterns- along with the fact thatSAT percentiles hardlychange each year- imply that the difficulty of the SAT has stayed relatively consistentover time. Using theSAT Curve to Your Advantage: 5 Do's and Don'ts By now you may be wondering how theSAT curve can helpyou, personally. Below, I give you thedo’s and don’ts of what to do with this knowledge about the SAT equating system,so thatyoucan give yourself a better shot at getting the SAT scores you needfor college. Do: Use raw score conversion tables toestimatehow many correct answers you’ll need to get the scaled scores you want.My recommendation is tofirst figure out your SAT goal scores.Once you have these scores, use any raw score conversiontable from anSAT practice test (or multiple tests) to get a feel for the raw scores you'll need on each section in order to hityour (scaled) goal scores on test day. (Tests #5, #6, and #7 are all former SATs, so these are great tests to use!) Take the SAT curvewith a grain of salt. Although the equating process can be helpful, at the end of the day nobody (except the College Board!) knows the exact equating formula for the SAT you’re going to take. So don’t worry too much about raw scores and how they convert into scaled scores- just know that while you can use equating tablesto help you estimate the number of correct answers you'll need, this data will never be 100-percent applicable to your particular test. Don't: Confuse the SAT equating process with a regular curve. As I mentioned before, there is no SAT curve- at least not in the traditional sense. On the SAT, how other test takers score has zero bearing on your score (though it does affect your SAT percentile).The only factor that influencesyour scaled score is the equating process, which varieswith each SAT to ensure scaled scores represent the same levels of ability across tests. Assume when you take the test willaffectyour score. Again, this is a common misconception. Many people believe certain tests areeasier to score higher on than others due to variations in difficulty or different abilities of test takers. But this isn't true! The equating process makes it so you don't gain or lose any likelihood of attaining a certain score, no matter when or with whom you take the SAT. Try togame the system.Because you can't know for certainhow your raw SAT scores will convert into scaled scores, it's impossible to use what we know about theequating process to cheat the system and guarantee yourself a higher score.Anyone who claims this is possible is flat-outwrong! Now, sit back and grab your popcorn- it's time for the recap! Recap: What Is the SAT Curve? How Does It Work? So is the SAT curved? In short, no, the SAT isn't curved.However, the College Board does use an equating system, which ensures scaled SAT scores always correlate tothe same levels of ability, no matter when you take the test. Although there's no way of knowing forsure just how your raw scores will convert into scaled scores, you can use raw score to scaled score range tables from official SAT practice tests to help you approximate the number of questions you'll need to answer correctly on test day, so you can get the scaled scores you want. Unfortunately,these tables aren't a hundred percent reliable, as each test uses a different equating formula (that only the College Board knows). Lastly, don't try to use the SAT curveto cheatthe SAT. As long as youstudy hardand usehigh-quality resources, you'll be on your way to a high SAT score (and hopefully the college of your dreams) in no time! What’s Next? You understand how the SAT curve works- but what about the scoring system? Read our in-depth guide to how the SAT is scoredto learn more about theequating process andhow subscores and cross-test scores come into play. Want to learn more about SAT scores?Find your goal score with our step-by-step guide and learn about the current averages. Once you're finished with those, check out my article on SAT scores for colleges to see what kinds of scores you'll need for popular schools! If you enjoyed this article, you'll love myanalysisof the ACT curve! Disappointed with your scores? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Thursday, February 20, 2020

A Romantic Dinner Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

A Romantic Dinner - Essay Example Outside, the landscape had changed. Where once there were the brash, insistent reds and greens of late summer now were the glamorous, rich shades of ochre, crimson and orange. Lisa stepped into her thin shoes and let the door slam shut behind her, leaving behind the cheer and light of her kitchen for the valley that was topped by the glorious shades of a sun setting behind the mountains. Her worn, cotton dress, whose colors had mellowed from being hung to dry in the sun, swished around her ankles. Twigs snapped like matchsticks beneath her feet as she walked towards the silvery sheen of the lake. From within the basket could be heard the faint clink of glass and silverware. Lisa paused and smiled even brighter at the figure sitting on a blanket by the lake. She hadn't seen Colin for over three months while she had been away for the summer, visiting her grandparents in Louisiana before school started up again. The days had seemed like years, the weeks had seemed like aeons and the months like an eternity. Lisa had met Colin when the two of them were fifteen. They both hated the same people in high school, which had led to them loving each other, although Lisa had suspected that Colin was gay at first. She liked the way he always had the edgiest jokes, the most intellectual references, the most sincere kindness and the most tasteful pants. He was head and shoulders above the other boys in her class. She knew that her heartstrings were permanently soldered to this boy when, at their upper-crust private school, Colin confessed that as soon as he was eighteen, he wanted to run away from home, join Greenpeace, and "fight eco-terrorism," as he put it. And when Colin was asked by the school basketball coach, "Why don't you want to join the team" and answered with, "Because I don't like you," she nearly proposed. Colin was on his back, staring at the sky. When he heard Lisa's footsteps, he tilted his head backwards, looked at her and smiled brightly, then casually walked over to her and squeezed her as tight as she could. The two of them laid down on the grass, embracing. Colin went back to his sky-gazing, while tapping his black, Converse-clad foot gently to some tune heard only within his head. Between his fingers he twirled a single blade of grass, then rolled it between the square palms of his hands. "I missed you, baby," Lisa said, inhaling the scent of his blond hair. He smelled like Suave shampoo and soy milk."I missed you, too," he said. "What do you have for me to eat Did you make tasty treats for me""I thought you would never ask," Lisa smiled. She sat up and pulled the heavy wicker basket towards them and started sifting through its contents. Lisa was fairly young-just shy of twenty-two-but in spite of that, she had marvelous skills within the kitchen, probably as a result of having an almost unhealthy interest in the domestic arts. She adored quilting, baking, sewing and knitting; her room was always spotless and beautiful, with finely crocheted ecru lace curtains on the windows and a homemade apron hanging on her door. Her dream was to one day own a giant farmhouse with lots of children (six, to be exact) and raise sheep, goats and bees. She envisioned herself making cheese and candles and liked the idea of teaching her children to spin and die skeins of yarn into all t he colors of the rainbow-burgundy, cobalt, sage and blonde,